Windows 95 is a true operating system, but Windows 3.x is only a graphical interface to MS-DOS.
Windows 95 can run either 32 or 16 bit applications.
Windows 3.x can only run 16 bit applications.
COMMAND.COM - Acts as a "translator" for processing requests before they are sent directly to the processor.
The Control Panel in both Windows 3.x and Windows95 only configures system settings.
Windows 95 uses the fat32 file system.
MS-DOS uses the fat16 file system.
Loading order of MS-DOS:
Minimum files that MS-DOS
needs to load:
BUFFERS= and Smartdrv both have to do with caching in MS-DOS.
The DEVICE= command in CONFIG.SYS loads device drivers into the memory.
INTERNAL dos commands are in COMMAND.COM.
PIF is a Program Information File for DOS programs.
DLL files are shared executable pieces of code that help reduce the size of applications that use them.
The Add/Remove Programs applet in Control Panel can be used to create startup disks.
The F4 key allows you to boot into an old operating system in a system that has Windows 95 as the default OS.
DIR and CHKDSK can both give the total disk space on an MS-DOS system.
The ROM BIOS is programming that communicates directly with a computer's hardware.
Giving an application the Execute in Foreground option from the 386 Control Panel applet in Windows 3.x helps to speed up the application.
SYSTEM.INI - Contains drivers and VXD's for Windows devices in Windows 3.x and Windows 95.
SYSEDIT - Used to edit AUTOEXEC.BAT, CONFIG.SYS, WIN.INI, and the SYSTEM.INI.
The [boot] portion of the SYSTEM.INI has the drivers that are loaded at startup.
Windows 95 detection
The Windows 95 Registry is designed as a database used by OLE to store information on OLE servers. It is used by Windows 95 to store the information typically found in Windows 3.x .INI files and the REG.DAT file. The Registry can be used for troubleshooting and enhancing perfomance in Windows 95. The Registry is a heirarchical tree which contains information about many things in the computer.
The Windows 95 Registry is composed of USER.DAT and SYSTEM.DAT.
The majority of the configuration settings of Windows 95 are in the Registry.
A virtual machine is an illusional environment created by the operating system in memory. These are designed to allocate resources to programs that might normally be halted by other programs in memory. Each MS-DOS application runs in its own virtual machine, as they are designed to have total and uninterupted access to all system resources. All other non-MS-DOS based programs run in the System virtual machine.
Windows 95 has three
Plug and Play is designed so that no user intervention is required in order to install hardware.
A Plug and Play system
needs to consist of the following to be complete:
Legacy Cards - Hardware designed prior to Plug and Play which, when installed, will not automatically be setup by the OS and must be setup manually.
Hard Drive caching in Windows 95 is handeled with VCache.
|Conventional Memory||1k-640k||Used for DOS applications and TSR's.|
|Upper Memory||640k-1024k||Used to load MS-DOS device drivers to help increase space available for DOS applications.|
|High Memory Area||1024k - 1088k.||Reserved for use by single application or utility.|
|Extended Memory||1088k - end of memory||Was created for DOS applications to be able to access RAM outside of the first 640k.|
|Expanded Memory||Uses virtual memory||Uses bank-switching to page data in and out of memory quickly.|
Windows 3.x must have 2048k minimum to run in 386 Enhanced mode.
HIMEM.SYS and EMM386.EXE are both memory managers.
Minimum Hardware Requirements
for Windows 3.x:
Windows 95 Setup Options:
The Express setup of Windows 3.x does not allow you to choose the location of the Windows directory.
Old system files are not saved when using the Windows 95 Custom setup.
Pressing F3 during the install of MS-DOS, Windows 3.x, or Windows 95 will terminate the setup.
The default directory for MS-DOS installation is C:\DOS.
Windows 3.x Express setup automatically chooses which applications and utilities will be installed on a system, and automatically creates icons for pre-existing Windows programs.
Network configuration is part of the Windows 95 installation process, but can be done later after the setup is complete.
Safe Mode is a diagnostic mode that loads only the minimum drivers necessary to launch Windows 95.
The F8 key allows you to choose between the following boot options for Windows 95: Normal, Safe Mode, Safe Mode with network support, Step by Step Confirmation, Command Prompt, and Previous Version of MS-DOS.
The F5 key allows you to boot directly into the Safe Mode of Windows 95.
The F5 key bypasses the AUTOEXEC.BAT file and the CONFIG.SYS file in both MS-DOS and Windows 95.
Pressing the F8 key in MS-DOS allows you to step through config.sys and autoexec.bat line-by-line.
If COMMAND.COM is missing, you will recieve a "Bad or missing command interpreter" error message.
CHKDSK and SCANDISK are both hard drive testing programs.
Make sure you document any troubleshooting performed.
TCP/IP is an Internet protocol currently used for most networking situations. Each computer using TCP/IP will contain a unique IP address in a x.x.x.x format (where each x equals a number between 0 and 255) and a subnet mask.
TCP/IP is the protocol that must be loaded in Windows 95 in order to connect to the Internet.